A Transistor Museum Interview

with Dr. George Ludwig

The First Transistors in Space - Personal Reflections by the Designer of the Cosmic Ray Instrumentation Package for the Explorer I Satellite


Curator’s Introduction (Cont)


Here is a brief summary of George Ludwig’s major career accomplishments and positions:


●  Principal instrumentor for Explorers I, II, III, IV, V, S-16, VII and S-46 while a student at the University of Iowa.  Co-discoverer of the Van Allen Radiation Belts.


● Served as Project Scientist for NASA’s Orbiting Geophysical Observatories 1, 3 and 5, which carried more than 60 instruments to conduct a wide variety of space science investigations.


●  Directed the design, construction, and check-out of the TITOS-N/NOAA polar-orbiting satellite system and of many of the evolutionary improvements to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system.


● Technical Director, NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Service.


● Director, NOAA’s Environmental Research Laboratories.  Directed work of nine major research laboratories and additional program offices and research units.


● Assistant Chief Scientist, NASA, Washington DC.  Critical examination of NASA space research data management.


● California Institute of Technology Visiting Senior Scientist at NASA Headquarters.  Led effort to define the Data and Information Systems for the Global Change Research Program and early-Earth Observing System



Curator’s Introduction (Cont)


1957 Photo - Courtesy of JPL



The above photograph is from 1957 and shows Dr. George Ludwig (on the right) holding the cosmic ray package that he designed for the Explorer III satellite, which was successfully launched into earth orbit in March 1958.  In addition to the cosmic ray electronics, the above photo shows Henry Richter holding the low power transmitter and subcarrrier oscillators designed at JPL for the Explorer III.  [3]     






Go To Ludwig Oral History, Page 3

COPYRIGHT © 2007 by Jack Ward.  All Rights Reserved.  http://www.transistormuseum.com/